Autism is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty in communicating and interacting with other people. Nowadays, autism is known as AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS. In this disease, the symptoms vary from person to person and the intensity of symptoms too. Such as if the symptoms of autism patient lie on the high’s spectrum disorder, the patient feels fewer symptoms of autism disease or less severity of the disease. On the other hand, a person that lies on lower spectrum disorders, the patient would feel many disorders of high intensity. ASD disorder Is a rare disorder out of 100, only 1% child may be affected by this disorder. If ASD child gets proper treatment on time, then this disorder maybe cure. However, after the peak of their development, there is no chance of treating this disorder. So, parents should keep a close eye on the developmental process of the child to see if their child has ASD or not
ASD people may show abnormalities to different sensory inputs like vision, touch, sound, and pain. In ASD, the problem in autism patient is either they are hypersensitive or hypersensitive. So, to find out the autism patient is hypersensitive or hypersensitive, therapists and clinician did tons of studies.
One study that shows the relation of pain and brain activity is done in Chicago. This study shows that autism patient shows the brain activity in response to hot object is abnormal that normal people.
In this study, 17 autism patient and 16 average patients asked to sit on a chair and a metal object tied to their ankle. The metal object starts to heat, and until the temperature of the metal, the object reaches 49 degrees Celsius. This temperature can hurt a person but not injured them. The temperature of the metal object starts to low down after 12 seconds. In those 12 seconds, the brain activity of all the participants measured on a device. In the start of the experiment means in the first 7 seconds, the brain activity of autism patient and average patient are the same. But in the last five seconds, the brain of autism patient does not show any activity while the brain of healthy people shows an average response
Then after the research, both these participants ask about the intensity of pain. Both groups rated the intensity of pain 8 out of 10. There is a difference between the brain response to pain, but there is no difference in verbal reaction of pain.
This can be understood that autism patient lacks the ways of telling their emotions, or maybe they get confused due to the presence of a lot of people, background, or light.
In many types of research, the experimenter asked tons of question and multiple-choice questions to the autism patient. However, they do not answer the question correctly as they get nervous and confuse. So, the research said there to know the correct answer these questions should give to autism patient beforehand so they can prepare it with the help of their guardian. Moreover, the questionnaire should be made, especially for autism; people meant the question should be simple and elaborated.
Much research tries to measure the sensory dysfunction aspects or socially dysfunctional aspects of ASD. However, the main problem in these not a single research measured the effect of these two combined.
Another study that is done by Doctor Gu assistant professor in behaviour and science school. This study aims to measure the pain perception and brain activity during pain and while a person is waiting for the pain.
In this research experiment, a medical device is used to give a shock to autism patient and ordinary people. The metal stimulation decides how much shock both groups can tolerate. Shock is given to these groups while they are in the MRI scanner so the researchers can see the brain activity and facial expressions of patient anticipating the pain and during the pain. There is a part of the brain which encodes the feeling a person feels while anticipating the pain. This part of our brain is known as ACC anterior cingulate cortex.
The result of the study proves that autism patient is hypersensitive to pain. Anything factor that came to know is the brain activity of ASD patient while anticipating the pain is much higher than ordinary people. ASD patient tells less intensity of pain as compared to ordinary people. However, again, that can explain because an ASD patient cannot tell their emotions to others.
Another research also proves that hypersensitive or hypersensitive can be present in the same patient at the same time. Some simple events that do not cause any pain to a healthy child such as fingers running on the scalp, cuddling, child wrestling and many more but these events can cause much pain to ASD patient. That explains why the ASD patient does not want to interact with social because they have a fair of pain.
The child who has ASD does not know how to tell their parents about the pain. As a parent of ASD patient is a complicated task because their child does not show any symptoms of pain, such as if he is hungry, thirsty, pain, or cold. If ASD child also has some severe medical conditions such as asthma, heart disease, then MRI scan and X Rays the only way through which condition of a child can be known. However, to see if the medications are working on them or not a parent should focus on their child and notice every single sign that a child shows such as the level of energy in them or playing hours. Pay attention to the unusual child behaviour that a child may show if he is not eating well or doing something that he does not do regularly.
Another thing that therapist and clinics can do to help ASD patient is to prepare some interventions that help the child of response for sensory information such as pain perception.