Organizational leadership is a dual focused management approach that works towards
the best for individual and group as a whole simultaneously . Four key components of
organisational leadership are identified below ;
The development and understanding of your own as well as the worldview of others . It
is a composite image created from the various lenses through which individuals view
the world . Individuals worldview is defined by that individual’s attitude , opinion and
beliefs . It is not the same as identity , political stance or religious point of view but does
include these things .It incorporates everything an individual believes about the world ,
combining the tangible and the intangible . Worldview is the öperating instruction”for
how the individual interfaces with the world .One who does not take into consideration
how individuals interface with the world in a much weaker position to lead these
individuals . Furthermore , organizational leadership requires an understanding of the
composite worldview of the organization , which consist of many diverse and sometimes
conflicting worldviews of the individuals within that organization .
It requires capitalizing on strengths and managing around weaknesses . An individual
should perform an activity at around 95% success rate in order to consider their
performances of that activity . It is never possible to possess a strength without the
requisite talent . Strength is not necessarily the same as ability , an ability is a strength
only if you can fathom yourself doing it repeatedly , happily and successfully .The
building blocks of strength are :
● Talent – naturally recurring patterns of thought , feeling or behaviour .
● Knowledge – facts and lessons learned .
● Skills – the steps of an activity .
One need to have strength in every aspect of a role in order to excel in that role . The
excellent performers must be well rounded in a pervasive myth . Excellent performers
are rarely well rounded ; on the contrary , they are sharp . Excellent performers do not
ignore their weaknesses ; they work on them just enough so that they do not undermine
Ethics aids leaders in balancing truth and loyalty . It is not an inoculation or a
compromise . It is a process and a lens by which leaders approach a problem situation .
It is the compass by which leaders navigate not only right vs wrong but also right vs
right . Ethics call us to be impartial , yet engaged . Effective leaders utilize ethics to look
for the “hidden alternative”in ethnically questionable situations .
It is a tool to interface one another with groups or individuals as well as the rest of the
world . Effective communication requires an understanding of the ( Values ,
Assumptions, Beliefs , Expectations ) of those whom we communicate . Its just not only
text , email , phone call or personal visit : these are methods of communication . For
understanding someone’s worldview and VABEs enables leaders to acknowledge but
look past differences , focus on areas of agreement and to effectively listen for and hear
the messages of others . Leaders are able to move beyond communication barriers
(appearance , vocabulary , slutter , lisp , accent , etc ) and focus on the message of
The most popular leadership styles are described below ;
This is the kind of leadership in which the leaders combine together the basic leadership
and power in him . He usually gives orders and makes rules without even consulting
anyone in the organization . The leader takes full responsibility of his actions and
decisions . This style is basically a negative style if , we consider it from ethical point of
view . The employees under him does as he says . He does not think about the
employees and their feelings . He does not allow them to have any impact on any
decision he makes . He thinks that he is the only person who can make the right
decision in every situation .
Following are the chief characteristics of authoritarian leadership style ;
● Leaders make decisions with little or no participation or creative input from their
followers or team members .
● Leaders independently preside over policies and processes .
● Group member are always directly supervised by the leader .
1. In small-group situations , consistent results are produced .
2. It reduces the time , needed to make decisions .
3. Productivity boost can be applied .
4. A large number of mistakes can be reduced .
5. It creates clarity within the chain of command .
6. It can reduce the number of mistakes which occur .
7. It can provide a boost in productivity .
8. It creates a consistent result .
1. Subordinates tend to shirk initiative and responsibility .
2. Among subordinates , this style leads to frustration , low moral and conflict .
3. It reduces the amount of group input received .
4. It creates moments of insecurity within the leadership .
5. It creates a lack of feedback .
6. It encourages a higher churn rate .
7. It causes everyone to rely on the experience of the leader .
8. It eliminates innovation from the process .
The Effects Of Authoritarian Leadership Style :
● Lack of creativity – They don’t give the employees the chance to give their spin
on the tasks to be performed because the authoritarian leader decides everything
themselves nad executes it in their own way . In this way , the creative abilityof
the employee is never developed or discovered and that is a missed opportunity
for both the employee and the company .The need that every person has to do
meaningful work , is also satisfied by developing creativity on the work floor .
After all , creativity simulates growth and innovation within an organization and
also ensures increased productivity .
● Demotivating – The demotivating circumstances ensure that people under an
authoritarian leader often walk away from it . The demotivating feeling that occurs
among people who work under an authoritarian leader is partly due to the lack of
creativity development and partly due to fear of sanctions . The fear of sanction
causes them to be extrinsically negatively motivated . Employees know that they
have to carry out the orders they receive without contradiction , which means
they will never do more than is necessary
● Lack of sense of responsibility – The employees feel like they are just a
number without value , because their input is cut off or not even heard . When
they achieve success , they are not barely appreciated by the leaders . This
removes the bond of trust between the leader and the employees , will never tell
him anything in confidence .
● Passive Aggressiveness – The frustration and fear that arises from authoritarian
leadership can take an unpleasant forms . The dominance that is strogly present
among leaders , creates resistance . Because the group members constantly
have to comply , become angry and uneasy . There is no room for these sorts of
feelings under an authoritarian leader , which means they often express these
feelings to weeker people within the team or at home to family and friends . The
same happens , for example ; in education , where students express the pent-up
aggression , which they build up with a strongly authoritarian teacher to younger
or milder teachers .
Example of Business
● Construction Companies
● Manufacturing Companies
Popular leaders of Authoritarian leadership style
● Adolf Hitler
● Benito Mussolini
● Bill Gates
● Larry Ellison
● Lorne Michaels
● Richard Nixon
● Vladmir Putin
This style of leadership involves discussion with the employees and their participation in
the construction of plans and arrangements . He involves the employees in the
decision-making process . He tries to assist the employees with understanding rather
than with power and fear .
● Distribution of responsibility – A manager that leads democratically will
distribute responsibility among his group to facilitate participation in decision
● Empowering group members – Leaders must empower their members so that
the members can accomplish their responsibilities . Empowerment includes ;
providing training and education necessary for delegated task completion.
● Aiding group decision-making process – A major role of a democratic leader is
to ensure democratic deliberation in making group decision . This means that a
leader should act as a facilitator and mediator between group members and
ensure that a psychologically health and respectful environment is maintained .
1. To solve a complex concern , it works well .
2. It strengthens the leadership of a team .
3. Anyone can easily practise this leadership style .
4. It encourages honesty and stronger commitment levels within the workplace .
5. It builds a stronger vision for the future .
6. It is a leadership style that anyone can practice .
7. It helps to solve complex problems .
8. It makes honesty a top priority .
9. It creates higher level of job satisfaction .
1. If the participation from the subordinates is just for the name sake , its less
2. In decision making , this style of leadership is time consuming and may result in
3. While making decision , consulting others to go against the capability of the
leader to take decisions.
4. It can cause disharmony if it is misapplied .
5. It can cause leaders to start fence sitting .
6. It may never reach a true consensus .
7. It does not always offer a positive outcome .
8. It struggles to offer a clear definition of leadership .
Effects of Democratic Leadership Style
It results in higher motivation and superior morale .
There is positive impact on performance and productivity .
It enhances the co-operation with the management .
It improves work culture and reduces absenteeism .
● Employee Satisfaction
This make the employee feel their contribution in decision making .
Example of business
● Pharmaceutical industry
● Hospitals and labs
● High-tech firms
● Mayo clinic
Popular Leaders of Democratic leadership Style
● Nellie Tayloe Ross
● Hattie Wyatt Caraway
● Franklin D. Roosevelt
● Carl Strokes
● Shirley Chisholm
● Carol Moseley Braun
Free-rein Leadership (Laissez-Faire Leadership )
In this style of leadership , the leaders usually keep themselves away from obligation
and power . In this leadership , the leader passes the power to the employees of the
organization and does not take much part in the matters of the organization . He always
guides the employees toward the right path . He tries to solve the problems of
employees by offering them guidance . The pioneer performs just a minor job.
● Complete freedom for followers to make decision .
● Group members are expected to solve problems on their own .
● Leaders provide the tools and resources needed .
● Power is handed over to followers , yet leaders still take responsibility for the
group’s decision and actions .
● Very little guidance from leaders .
1. The potential of subordinates is fully utilized .
2. It provides maximum deployment of the employees .
3. This style makes the development of enterprises easy .
4. Maximum scope for the development of subordinates is provided .
5. Subordinates take chance to initiate .
6. This style provide a high level of motivation to their subordinates and if the
people are highly motivated , the leadership style is more effective .
7. This style is useful for the development of enterprises.
1. There is no leadership at all under this style of leadership .
2. The leaders do not support and provide guidance to the subordinates .
3. Subordinates may move in different directions and may work at cross purpose
which may create problem for the organization .
4. lack of importance of the managerial post .
5. No proper direction is provided .
6. This style can be a disaster if the manager does not know all the competence .
However , the integrity of his people and their ability to handle this kind of
7. It is difficult in cooperation .
8. Subordinates may move in different directions for different purposes . Therefore ,
they may work at cross purposes which may create a problem for the institute .
Effects of Free-rein Leadership style
● When team members are skilled
This leadership can be effective in situations where group members are highly skilled ,
motivated and capable of working on their own . Since these group members are expert
and have the knowledge and skills to work independently , are capable of
accomplishing tasks with very little guidance .
● When group members are expert
It can be particularly effective in situations where group members are actually more
knowledgeable than the group’s leaders . Because this style allows the employee to
demonstrate their deep knowledge and skill surrounding that particular subject .
● When independence is valued
This autonomy can be freeing to some group members and help them feel more
satisfied with their work . This style can be used in situations where followers have
high-level of passion for their work .
Example of Business
● Advertising agencies
● Product design firms
● Startup social media companies
● Research and development departments
● Venture capital investment companies
● High-end architectural and specialized engineering firms
Popular Leaders of Free-rein
● Herbert Hoover
● Andrew Mellon
● Martin Van Buren
● Queen Victoria
● Warren Buffet