Leadership Across The Organization

Organizational leadership is a dual focused management approach that works towards

the best for individual and group as a whole simultaneously . Four key components of

organisational leadership are identified below ;

1. Worldview

The development and understanding of your own as well as the worldview of others . It

is a composite image created from the various lenses through which individuals view

the world . Individuals worldview is defined by that individual’s attitude , opinion and

beliefs . It is not the same as identity , political stance or religious point of view but does

include these things .It incorporates everything an individual believes about the world ,

combining the tangible and the intangible . Worldview is the öperating instruction”for

how the individual interfaces with the world .One who does not take into consideration

how individuals interface with the world in a much weaker position to lead these

individuals . Furthermore , organizational leadership requires an understanding of the

composite worldview of the organization , which consist of many diverse and sometimes

conflicting worldviews of the individuals within that organization .

2. Strengths

It requires capitalizing on strengths and managing around weaknesses . An individual

should perform an activity at around 95% success rate in order to consider their

performances of that activity . It is never possible to possess a strength without the

requisite talent . Strength is not necessarily the same as ability , an ability is a strength

only if you can fathom yourself doing it repeatedly , happily and successfully .The

building blocks of strength are :

● Talent – naturally recurring patterns of thought , feeling or behaviour .

● Knowledge – facts and lessons learned .

● Skills – the steps of an activity .

One need to have strength in every aspect of a role in order to excel in that role . The

excellent performers must be well rounded in a pervasive myth . Excellent performers

are rarely well rounded ; on the contrary , they are sharp . Excellent performers do not

ignore their weaknesses ; they work on them just enough so that they do not undermine

strengths .

3. Ethics

Ethics aids leaders in balancing truth and loyalty . It is not an inoculation or a

compromise . It is a process and a lens by which leaders approach a problem situation .

It is the compass by which leaders navigate not only right vs wrong but also right vs

right . Ethics call us to be impartial , yet engaged . Effective leaders utilize ethics to look

for the “hidden alternative”in ethnically questionable situations .

4. Communication

It is a tool to interface one another with groups or individuals as well as the rest of the

world . Effective communication requires an understanding of the ( Values ,

Assumptions, Beliefs , Expectations ) of those whom we communicate . Its just not only

text , email , phone call or personal visit : these are methods of communication . For

understanding someone’s worldview and VABEs enables leaders to acknowledge but

look past differences , focus on areas of agreement and to effectively listen for and hear

the messages of others . Leaders are able to move beyond communication barriers

(appearance , vocabulary , slutter , lisp , accent , etc ) and focus on the message of

speaker .

The most popular leadership styles are described below ;

Authoritarian Leadership

This is the kind of leadership in which the leaders combine together the basic leadership

and power in him . He usually gives orders and makes rules without even consulting

anyone in the organization . The leader takes full responsibility of his actions and

decisions . This style is basically a negative style if , we consider it from ethical point of

view . The employees under him does as he says . He does not think about the

employees and their feelings . He does not allow them to have any impact on any

decision he makes . He thinks that he is the only person who can make the right

decision in every situation .

Characteristics :

Following are the chief characteristics of authoritarian leadership style ;

● Leaders make decisions with little or no participation or creative input from their

followers or team members .

● Leaders independently preside over policies and processes .

● Group member are always directly supervised by the leader .

Advantages :

1. In small-group situations , consistent results are produced .

2. It reduces the time , needed to make decisions .

3. Productivity boost can be applied .

4. A large number of mistakes can be reduced .

5. It creates clarity within the chain of command .

6. It can reduce the number of mistakes which occur .

7. It can provide a boost in productivity .

8. It creates a consistent result .

Disadvantages :

1. Subordinates tend to shirk initiative and responsibility .

2. Among subordinates , this style leads to frustration , low moral and conflict .

3. It reduces the amount of group input received .

4. It creates moments of insecurity within the leadership .

5. It creates a lack of feedback .

6. It encourages a higher churn rate .

7. It causes everyone to rely on the experience of the leader .

8. It eliminates innovation from the process .

The Effects Of Authoritarian Leadership Style :

● Lack of creativity – They don’t give the employees the chance to give their spin

on the tasks to be performed because the authoritarian leader decides everything

themselves nad executes it in their own way . In this way , the creative abilityof

the employee is never developed or discovered and that is a missed opportunity

for both the employee and the company .The need that every person has to do

meaningful work , is also satisfied by developing creativity on the work floor .

After all , creativity simulates growth and innovation within an organization and

also ensures increased productivity .

● Demotivating – The demotivating circumstances ensure that people under an

authoritarian leader often walk away from it . The demotivating feeling that occurs

among people who work under an authoritarian leader is partly due to the lack of

creativity development and partly due to fear of sanctions . The fear of sanction

causes them to be extrinsically negatively motivated . Employees know that they

have to carry out the orders they receive without contradiction , which means

they will never do more than is necessary

● Lack of sense of responsibility – The employees feel like they are just a

number without value , because their input is cut off or not even heard . When

they achieve success , they are not barely appreciated by the leaders . This

removes the bond of trust between the leader and the employees , will never tell

him anything in confidence .

● Passive Aggressiveness – The frustration and fear that arises from authoritarian

leadership can take an unpleasant forms . The dominance that is strogly present

among leaders , creates resistance . Because the group members constantly

have to comply , become angry and uneasy . There is no room for these sorts of

feelings under an authoritarian leader , which means they often express these

feelings to weeker people within the team or at home to family and friends . The

same happens , for example ; in education , where students express the pent-up

aggression , which they build up with a strongly authoritarian teacher to younger

or milder teachers .

Example of Business

● Construction Companies

● Manufacturing Companies

● Military

Popular leaders of Authoritarian leadership style

● Adolf Hitler

● Benito Mussolini

● Bill Gates

● Larry Ellison

● Lorne Michaels

● Richard Nixon

● Vladmir Putin

Democratic Leadership

This style of leadership involves discussion with the employees and their participation in

the construction of plans and arrangements . He involves the employees in the

decision-making process . He tries to assist the employees with understanding rather

than with power and fear .

Characteristics :

● Distribution of responsibility – A manager that leads democratically will

distribute responsibility among his group to facilitate participation in decision


● Empowering group members – Leaders must empower their members so that

the members can accomplish their responsibilities . Empowerment includes ;

providing training and education necessary for delegated task completion.

● Aiding group decision-making process – A major role of a democratic leader is

to ensure democratic deliberation in making group decision . This means that a

leader should act as a facilitator and mediator between group members and

ensure that a psychologically health and respectful environment is maintained .


1. To solve a complex concern , it works well .

2. It strengthens the leadership of a team .

3. Anyone can easily practise this leadership style .

4. It encourages honesty and stronger commitment levels within the workplace .

5. It builds a stronger vision for the future .

6. It is a leadership style that anyone can practice .

7. It helps to solve complex problems .

8. It makes honesty a top priority .

9. It creates higher level of job satisfaction .

Disadvantages :

1. If the participation from the subordinates is just for the name sake , its less

effective .

2. In decision making , this style of leadership is time consuming and may result in

delays .

3. While making decision , consulting others to go against the capability of the

leader to take decisions.

4. It can cause disharmony if it is misapplied .

5. It can cause leaders to start fence sitting .

6. It may never reach a true consensus .

7. It does not always offer a positive outcome .

8. It struggles to offer a clear definition of leadership .

Effects of Democratic Leadership Style

● Result

It results in higher motivation and superior morale .


There is positive impact on performance and productivity .

● Co-operation

It enhances the co-operation with the management .

● Improvement

It improves work culture and reduces absenteeism .

Employee Satisfaction

This make the employee feel their contribution in decision making .

Example of business

● Pharmaceutical industry

● Hospitals and labs

● High-tech firms

● Google

● Genentech

● Mayo clinic


Popular Leaders of Democratic leadership Style

● Nellie Tayloe Ross

● Hattie Wyatt Caraway

● Franklin D. Roosevelt

● Carl Strokes

● Shirley Chisholm

● Carol Moseley Braun

Free-rein Leadership (Laissez-Faire Leadership )

In this style of leadership , the leaders usually keep themselves away from obligation

and power . In this leadership , the leader passes the power to the employees of the

organization and does not take much part in the matters of the organization . He always

guides the employees toward the right path . He tries to solve the problems of

employees by offering them guidance . The pioneer performs just a minor job.

Characteristics :

● Complete freedom for followers to make decision .

● Group members are expected to solve problems on their own .

● Leaders provide the tools and resources needed .

● Power is handed over to followers , yet leaders still take responsibility for the

group’s decision and actions .

● Very little guidance from leaders .


1. The potential of subordinates is fully utilized .

2. It provides maximum deployment of the employees .

3. This style makes the development of enterprises easy .

4. Maximum scope for the development of subordinates is provided .

5. Subordinates take chance to initiate .

6. This style provide a high level of motivation to their subordinates and if the

people are highly motivated , the leadership style is more effective .

7. This style is useful for the development of enterprises.

Disadvantages :

1. There is no leadership at all under this style of leadership .

2. The leaders do not support and provide guidance to the subordinates .

3. Subordinates may move in different directions and may work at cross purpose

which may create problem for the organization .

4. lack of importance of the managerial post .

5. No proper direction is provided .

6. This style can be a disaster if the manager does not know all the competence .

However , the integrity of his people and their ability to handle this kind of

freedom .

7. It is difficult in cooperation .

8. Subordinates may move in different directions for different purposes . Therefore ,

they may work at cross purposes which may create a problem for the institute .

Effects of Free-rein Leadership style

● When team members are skilled

This leadership can be effective in situations where group members are highly skilled ,

motivated and capable of working on their own . Since these group members are expert

and have the knowledge and skills to work independently , are capable of

accomplishing tasks with very little guidance .

● When group members are expert

It can be particularly effective in situations where group members are actually more

knowledgeable than the group’s leaders . Because this style allows the employee to

demonstrate their deep knowledge and skill surrounding that particular subject .

● When independence is valued

This autonomy can be freeing to some group members and help them feel more

satisfied with their work . This style can be used in situations where followers have

high-level of passion for their work .


Example of Business

● Advertising agencies

● Product design firms

● Startup social media companies

● Research and development departments

● Venture capital investment companies

● High-end architectural and specialized engineering firms

Popular Leaders of Free-rein

leadership style

● Herbert Hoover

● Andrew Mellon

● Martin Van Buren

● Queen Victoria

● Warren Buffet


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